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Thursday, June 17, 2010

From Brian Greene to Jonah Lehrer

I came across a neatly animated video of Columbia University string theorist Brian Greene discussing other dimensions ...

I only knew who Brian Greene was because he'd been mentioned in an episode of Stargate Atlantis (question asked, 'who would you rather fool around with: Neil deGrasse Tyson or Brian Greene?' :) but after watching the above video I was reminded of another place I'd seen him mentioned - the Templeton Foundation's Big Questions essay series.

But no, I was wrong I realized, as I looked in vain for his name there. Then I recalled I'd instead read about him at a NOVA page, Einstein's Big Idea: E = mc2 Explained that I'd seen mentioned in a post by Fr. Rob Marsh SJ.

But anyway, there I was, wrongly at the Templeton page where I came upon Jonah Lehrer, a Contributing Editor at Wired who writes on neuroscience. Looking him up, I saw he had a past article (Feb 2010) in The New York Times on the up side of depression, and being depressed a lot myself, I read it. It's a long article, so here's just the beginning of it .....


Depression’s Upside

The Victorians had many names for depression, and Charles Darwin used them all. There were his “fits” brought on by “excitements,” “flurries” leading to an “uncomfortable palpitation of the heart” and “air fatigues” that triggered his “head symptoms.” In one particularly pitiful letter, written to a specialist in “psychological medicine,” he confessed to “extreme spasmodic daily and nightly flatulence” and “hysterical crying” whenever Emma, his devoted wife, left him alone.

While there has been endless speculation about Darwin’s mysterious ailment — his symptoms have been attributed to everything from lactose intolerance to Chagas disease — Darwin himself was most troubled by his recurring mental problems. His depression left him “not able to do anything one day out of three,” choking on his “bitter mortification.” He despaired of the weakness of mind that ran in his family. “The ‘race is for the strong,’ ” Darwin wrote. “I shall probably do little more but be content to admire the strides others made in Science.”

Darwin, of course, was wrong; his recurring fits didn’t prevent him from succeeding in science. Instead, the pain may actually have accelerated the pace of his research, allowing him to withdraw from the world and concentrate entirely on his work. His letters are filled with references to the salvation of study, which allowed him to temporarily escape his gloomy moods. “Work is the only thing which makes life endurable to me,” Darwin wrote and later remarked that it was his “sole enjoyment in life.”

For Darwin, depression was a clarifying force, focusing the mind on its most essential problems. In his autobiography, he speculated on the purpose of such misery; his evolutionary theory was shadowed by his own life story. “Pain or suffering of any kind,” he wrote, “if long continued, causes depression and lessens the power of action, yet it is well adapted to make a creature guard itself against any great or sudden evil.” And so sorrow was explained away, because pleasure was not enough. Sometimes, Darwin wrote, it is the sadness that informs as it “leads an animal to pursue that course of action which is most beneficial.” The darkness was a kind of light.

The mystery of depression is not that it exists — the mind, like the flesh, is prone to malfunction. Instead, the paradox of depression has long been its prevalence. While most mental illnesses are extremely rare — schizophrenia, for example, is seen in less than 1 percent of the population — depression is everywhere, as inescapable as the common cold. Every year, approximately 7 percent of us will be afflicted to some degree by the awful mental state that William Styron described as a “gray drizzle of horror . . . a storm of murk.” Obsessed with our pain, we will retreat from everything. We will stop eating, unless we start eating too much. Sex will lose its appeal; sleep will become a frustrating pursuit. We will always be tired, even though we will do less and less. We will think a lot about death.

The persistence of this affliction — and the fact that it seemed to be heritable — posed a serious challenge to Darwin’s new evolutionary theory. If depression was a disorder, then evolution had made a tragic mistake, allowing an illness that impedes reproduction — it leads people to stop having sex and consider suicide — to spread throughout the population. For some unknown reason, the modern human mind is tilted toward sadness and, as we’ve now come to think, needs drugs to rescue itself.

The alternative, of course, is that depression has a secret purpose and our medical interventions are making a bad situation even worse. Like a fever that helps the immune system fight off infection — increased body temperature sends white blood cells into overdrive — depression might be an unpleasant yet adaptive response to affliction. Maybe Darwin was right. We suffer — we suffer terribly — but we don’t suffer in vain ..........



Blogger Deacon Denny said...

Interesting journey in the post! I thoroughly enjoyed the Brian Greene animation, thank you. My son Paul did some work for him at Columbia University, and he came out here to Seattle for a public lecture, which I attended. He is to modern physics what Carl Sagan was to astronomy several years ago... someone who can popularize it, make it understandable, even beautiful.

I didn't know that about Darwin, but did know that depression is very common. It's interesting to think it might have a secret purpose. I remember a time in my life when I suffered from depression a lot... and actually wrote a LOT of poetry, which I never do anymore. It was a bittersweet time.

6:07 PM  
Blogger Matthew said...

That is absolutely creepy. I was asking this /exact/ question (about the evolutionary utility of depression) just yesterday. Thanks for the snip and link!

7:00 PM  
Blogger crystal said...

Hi Denny,

How interesting that you and your son know Brian Greene :) I just saw a new book by him at the library on this stuff - maybe I'll pick it up the next time I'm there.

Yeah, weird to think depression may have a silver lining in a way. Maybe I'll try not to be so depressed about being sepressed.

You should post some of your poetry at your blog!

7:03 PM  
Blogger crystal said...


I'm humming that music from The Outer Limits :)

7:04 PM  

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